Monday, June 14, 2010

Palm kernel expeller machines - to extract palm oil & palm kernel cake effectively

What is Palm Kernel Expeller?

Palm kernel expeller sometimes also referred as palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product obtained from the crushing and expelling of oil from the palm kernel via the mechanical process.

Palm kernel expeller is known to be an important ingredient in the formulation of animal feeds and is considered to be excellent for ruminats such as cows, horses, poultry and sheep. This by-product contains magnesium, iron, zinc protein, high fibre, good level of residual oil and is high in palmitic acid.

Production of Palm kernel cake or palm kernel expeller:

The production of palm kernel cake involves several steps including:

Kernel pre-treatment (cleaning)
Grinding or size reduction
Steam Conditioning
Screw Pressing

During the screw pressing stage, the raw palm kernel oil is diverted for oil clarification to remove solid impurities. The residual palm kernel cake is cooled and stored. There are three variations in the process of
palm kernel oil extraction i.e. direct screw-pressing, partial pre-treatment, and complete pre-treatment.

Direct screw-pressing

Some mills crush the palm kernels directly in the presses without doing any pre-treatment on the seeds. Double pressing is usually done in such cases to ensure efficient oil extraction. The screw-presses used normally are less than 10 tonnes per unit per day.

Partial pre-treatment

Prior to screw pressing, the kernels are first broken down to smaller fragments by grinding. In some cases, cooking of kernels is also done.

Complete pre-treatment

Complete pre-treatment includes cleaning, grinding, flaking and steam conditioning before screw pressing the palm kernels. Plants with larger capacities choose complete pre-treatment.

Functions of Palm kernel expeller machines

To crush palm kernel for extracting oil and cake
To crush copra for extracting oil and cake

Advantages of Palm Kernel expeller machines

Maximize oil extraction from palm Kernel.
Low investment - easy to install.
High throughput Capacity.
Efficient with low operating cost and higher productivity.
Alloy steel with ultrasonically tested screw shaft.
Heavy duty bearings.
Low residual oil content in second press cake.
Reducing internal wear and tear.
Low power consumption per tonne.

For more information on palm kernel expeller machines, oil expellers, oil extraction process, oil refining machines, visit:

I am Virendra Verma writing on Seed Processing Machinery from last few years on regular basis to aware about Industrial Oil Mill Machinery Tools & Equipments to web users and define how they are important & beneficials for us & what’s role they play in our machinery Industry.

Thursday, May 20, 2010

Solvent Extraction - procedures and steps involved in the process

What is Solvent Extraction?

Solvent Extraction, as the name suggests is a process to extract oil from oil bearing materials by means of a solvent. Generally, Hexane (a petroleum by-product) is used as the solvent.

What are Solvent Extraction Plants?

Solvent Extraction Plants are used to extract oil by using chemicals. These plants use cake as the raw material, which is obtained from the oil press section. An organic solvent is used to dissolve the cake's or seed's oil content after the process of dipping or spraying, which ensures that the oil content is in close contact with the feeding material. After this, the solvent is vaporized out and the oil is collected. In these plants, the vaporized solvent is recycled.

There are many
Solvent Extraction Plants manufacturers, who use the quality assured materials and latest technology in the fabrication process. Generally, these plants are designed especially for extracting oil directly from oilseeds that contain less than 20% oil such as Soybean after the process of flaking. Pre-pressed or fully pressed seed cake that contain over 20% oil such as cotton seed, palm kernel, sunflower, copra, Castor, peanuts, and others.

Most of the edible oil manufacturers now-a-days use the horizontal extractors that operate on the principle of counter current, moving bed. It has varying height of bed and varying speed mechanism that allows absolute extraction by perfect penetration & percolation of the solvent.

Procedures followed in the solvent extraction process:

Dip oil-rich flake or pre-pressed cake into solvent
Dissolve vegetable oil into chemical solvent
Filter solid material
Evaporate oil mixed solvent to separate oil and solvent
Cool and recycle solvent
Further process oil and cake.

The best attribute of the solvent extraction plant is that it offers simple change-over of the process materials. These plants also find usage in the extraction of various useful solvents in assorted industries.

Salient features of the standard solvent extraction plants:

Available in solid - liquid and liquid - liquid extraction systems
Uses various solvents polar or non polar or a combination of both
Versatility to process all types of seeds, bran or oil cakes

For more information on solvent extraction plants, oil expellers , oil extraction process, oil refining machines, oil mill machinery, visit:

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Pressure Leaf filters for efficient oil filtering process

About Pressure Leaf Filters and their usage

In order to carry out an efficient oil filtering process, the use of technologically advanced machines is of high importance. One of the most popular filtering machine is the Pressure Leaf Filters which are of two types; Vertical Pressure Leaf Filters and Horizontal Pressure Leaf Filters. These filters consists of vertical vessels and horizontal vessels respectively. These filters also consists of filter leaves that are made up of several layers of wire mesh. The inner mesh is for discharging filtrate and also to support the outer layers.

About Vertical Pressure Leaf Filters

In a Vertical Pressure Leaf Filter, the slurries or mixtures are pumped into the vessel with the use of pressure. The vessel is fitted with vertical leaves that serve the purpose of the filter. Each leaf has a centrally located neck at its bottom and collects the filtrate. The leaf is constructed in such a way with ribs on both sides, which allows the filtrate to flow freely towards the neck. The leaf is also covered with coarse mesh screens that support the fine woven filter cloth that retains the cake. The space between the leaves vary in size depending on the formation of the cake and also the ability of the vacuum to hold the cake to the vertical leaf surface. The filtered cake is then dried and is discharged with the help of a pneumatic vibrator through the cake discharging outlet. The wet cakes are discharged through the small opening and the dry cakes are let out through the larger opening.

A large variety of Vertical Pressure Leaf Filters are available in today's market, which meet the varied requirements of the oil filtering companies all over the world. Manufacturers are making all possible use of the available technology in order to come up with the most innovative and well fabricated oil milling equipment.

Features of Vertical Pressure Leaf Filters

* Available in various sizes and capacities at the most cost-effective prices.
* Easy discharge of cakes as gravity releases the cake and lets it drop towards the discharging outlet.
* Are used when there is a need for large filtration without the use of much flooring space.
* The filter cloth or woven mesh screens are easily accessible.
* Simple mechanism as there are no complex bearing or sealing glands.

About Horizontal Pressure Leaf Filters

Apart from Vertical Pressure Leaf Filters, another type of filtering machine is known as Horizontal Pressure Leaf Filter. This type of machine is highly standardized and well designed to meet the varied requirements of the oil milling companies. This machine has continuously proved its mettle and renowned as an user-friendly and eco-friendly equipment. Filtering equipment are used to separate or filter all kinds of liquid from impure and unwanted particles that are present in the liquids. Likewise, horizontal pressure leaf filters are used for oil filtration purpose, and to separate the filtrate and filtered cake, and filtration of slurry from the liquids. These are also mainly used in when the filter cakes are sticky and difficult to remove. The cover of this equipment can also be pulled out to enable the easy discharge of the leaves for cleaning.

This type of Filter consists of a stack of plates that are attached to a hollow shaft, which further mounted inside a pressure vessel. Each of this plate is covered with a suitable filter medium. Every plate is circular in shape and has radial ribs that are welded to the bottom and also supports a horizontal coarse mesh screen which is covered with a finer woven metal screen or filter cloth which is used to retain the cake. The bottom of the plate slopes towards the hollow central shaft, which lets the filtrate flow freely through circumferential holes and further down the shaft towards the filtrate discharging outlet.

The Horizontal Pressure Leaf Filter also consists of vessels and are constructed vertically to accommodate the plates stack. The bottom design for this type of machines are available in two types namely Conical Bottom and Dished Bottom. The vessels at the bottom have secure cake discharge outlets, which ensures the safe sealing of the tank even under pressure. The tanks which have a conical bottom discharge the cake by gravity, and the tanks with dished bottoms consist of a spade that rakes and transports the cake towards the outlet. Because of this reason, the conical bottoms require more headroom than the dished bottom having the same filtration capacity.

The slurry or mixture is put into the vessel through the opening with the help of pressure. The cake which is retained by the filter medium forms on top of each plate while the filtrate passes through the hollow shaft. The cake is then dried and with the use of pressure, the plate stack are rotated and thus, the cake is released through the cake discharge outlet. The cake outlet interlocks after the discharge with a motor drive as the rotating is continuous.

A wide range of high quality and technologically advanced horizontal pressure leaf filters that are available in the Indian as well as global market today. These are fabricated to give a compact and sturdy construction.

Features of Horizontal Pressure Leaf Filters

* High productivity due to the high rate of filtration.
* Highly user-friendly
* Economical operational costs.
* Compact operation and thus no spillage.
* Available in large capacities and various sizes.
* Requires minimum floor spacing.

For more information on vertical and horizontal pressure leaf filters, oil mill machinery, oil expellers, oil refining equipment and contact their suppliers and manufacturers, visit:

I am Virendra Verma writing on Seed Processing Machinery from last few years on regular basis to aware about Industrial Oil Mill Machinery Tools & Equipments to web users and define how they are important & beneficials for us & what's role play in our machinery Industry.